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Additional info for A0-contractivity of the variable-step BDFs of order less than four

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As in a batch reactor, what is measured directly are concentrations—^here in the effluent—and a finite-difference approximation is needed to obtain the rate from experiments with different reactor space times and otherwise identical conditions. 5) For reactions with fluid-density variations, especially gas-phase reactions with change in mole number, the basic material balance r. 4. (l/y°)AFj/Ar (3-6) Differential reactors In essence, a differential reactor is a tubular reactor operated in such a way that the difference in composition between the entering and exiting fluids is minimal (very small reactor size or very high flow rate).

1). The procedure based on measurement of initial rates is not entirely reliable. It can give misleading results if fast early reaction steps cause one or several intermediates to build up to substantial concentrations during the time span in which product concentrations are measured for calculation of initial rates. 52 Chapter 3. 4. Gas-phase reactions at constant pressure The chemist or engineer designing his experiments to establish quantitative kinetics of gas-phase reactions will do his best to look for constant-volume equipment.

However, they are excellent for gas-liquid reactions because the effective mixing also provides good gas-liquid mass transfer. The flow rate enters into the evaluation of the results and should be accurately known and constant. This calls for an excellent flow meter (mass flow meter for gases) and pump (for liquids). The transient behavior of CSTRs is mathematically complex. As a rule, the evaluation is therefore based on operation at steady state. In that state, the difference between inflow and outflow of a reactant (or product) equals the amount consumed (or formed) by reaction.

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A0-contractivity of the variable-step BDFs of order less than four by Sand J.


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