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This principle has sometimes been formulated as the law of Prägnanz (‘goodness’) – the overarching Gestalt law stating that the organization that we perceive will be as good as the incoming information allows it to be. For example, in the absence of other influences, we will group similar elements that are close together or move together, and we will perceive closed figures with minimal area, smooth contours, maximal symmetry and maximal convexity. e. not based on likelihood judgements). They formulated their own position in contrast with the then dominant elementalist/structuralist (Wundt) and empiricist/inferential (von Helmholtz) views, and they were inspired by the discovery in physics of universal laws of dynamics specifying what is simple and natural in the physical universe ( for historical perspective, see Asch, 1995; Hochberg, 1998).

In addition to the classic Gestalt laws of perceptual organization, a number of new laws have been proposed in recent studies. For example, Palmer and Rock (1994) have proposed ‘uniform connectedness’ as a new, even more fundamental principle of perceptual organization because it defines the regions or blobs that then become grouped by the other principles. In this sense, uniform connectedness is supposed to create the entry-level units of perceptual organization. g. Beck & Palmer, 2002; Han, Humphreys, & Chen, 1999; Kimchi, 1998).

Our visual system should be adapted to the statistics of ‘natural images’ through evolution and developmental processes. Recently, with the advent of sufficiently powerful desktop computers, the study of the general statistics of natural images has become a topic of growing interest, with research attempting to relate the statistical properties of natural scenes to the processing in the early stages of the mammalian visual system (Atick, 1992; Bell & Sejnowski, 1997; Field, 1987, 1994; Kersten, 1987; Olshausen & Field, 1996; for a review, see Simoncelli & Olshausen, 2001).

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A (new) nonparametric method for XL-rating by Kremer


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